Review of Fourier transform and its properties. Transmission of signals through linear systems. Power spectral density and autocorrelation function. The sampling theorem and the Nyquist rate, aliasing distortion. Non-ideal sampling: Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and flat-top PAM and equalization. Digital signaling: quantization, encoding and pulse code modulation (PCM), line codes and their spectra, regenerative repeaters. Pulse transmission: Inter-symbol interference (ISI), Nyquist method for zero ISI, time-division multiplexing (TDM), pulse-time modulation techniques. Complex envelope representation of band-pass and modulated signals. RF circuits: limiters, converters, multipliers, detectors, PLL circuits, etc. Analog modulation techniques: AM, DSB-SC, SSB etc. Binary modulation techniques: ASK, BPSK, FSK.